Abstract. This document updates and expands the initial Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Fever and Neutropenia Guideline that. Risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) should be systematically assessed (in consultation with infectious disease specialists as needed), including. Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a serious complication of cancer chemotherapy that The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), National.

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Some clinicians are reluctant to routinely use fluoroquinolones in children because of preclinical studies in animals that have suggested musculoskeletal toxicity.

IDSA GUIDELINES Bundle (free trial)

Those who remain febrile after 4—7 days of broad-spectrum antibiotics but are clinically stable, have no clinical or chest and sinus CT signs of fungal infection, have negative serologic assay results for evidence of invasive fungal infection, and have no recovery of fungi such as Candida or Aspergillus species from any body site may have antifungal agents withheld B-II.

In addition, an ever-broadening clinical experience continues to inform neutropeniz judgment.

A positive test result preceded clinical symptoms of invasive fungal infection in many patients. If influenza is suspected epidemiologically, empirical frbrile with an anti-influenza agent eg, oseltamivir and zanamivir should be initiated while test results are pending.

Of note, hemodialysis, hemolysis, serum turbidity, hyperlipidemia, visible bilirubin, use of blood products including immunoglobulin and albumin, bacteremia, and the specimen’s exposure to gauze may confound interpretation of fbrile test. Considerations that may influence the choice of antifungal therapy include prior Aspergillus infection, risk for GVHD which is an important predictor of invasive aspergillosisand cost.

These include pre-engraftment allogeneic HSCT recipients receiving myeloablative conditioning regimens, some autologous HSCT recipients unsupported by hematopoietic growth factors, and patients undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy regimens for AML with severe oral and gastrointestinal mucositis [].

Although voriconazole failed to meet the strict statistical measurement of noninferiority when compared with liposomal amphotericin B [ ], most clinicians regard it as a reliable alternative [ — ]. New trends in patient management: The air pressure in the patient rooms should be positive compared with adjoining areas, such as hallways, toilets, and anterooms.

Guidelines in the Management of Febrile Neutropenia for Clinical Practice

Prevention of infection in neutropenic patients is also an important focus of this guideline. However, the Panel does not favor this approach for initial evaluation, because a catheter-related infection cannot idda ruled out without the simultaneous peripheral culture [ 51—53 ].


Recognition of these resistant species requires careful interpretation of organism-specific antibiograms [ 5—7 ]. In the initial multivariate analysis that led to the development of the MASCC criteria, longer neutropenia duration was not found to be a significant risk factor for poor outcome [ 43 ]. For patients with recurrent or persistent fever, consideration should also be given to noninfectious sources, such as drug-related fever, thrombophlebitis, the underlying cancer itself, or resorption of blood from a large hematoma.

Patients with any of the following criteria based on clinical trial criteria from studies assessing risk in febrile neutropenic patients are considered to be at high risk for febril complications during fever and neutropenia. This survival frbrile had not been shown in previous meta-analyses [ —— ].

Comparative study of cefepime versus ceftazidime in the empiric treatment neutroprnia pediatric cancer patients with fever and neutropenia.

HSCT allograft transplant recipients should receive prophylaxis through the neutropenic period and beyond, because a survival advantage has been demonstrated for patients who continue antifungal prophylaxis long after engraftment, for at least 75 days after transplant febrils ], or until cessation of immunosuppressive therapy [ ].

Carbapenemase-producing isolates of Klebsiella species and P. Meropenem monotherapy versus combination therapy with ceftazidime and amikacin for empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic patients. These and other studies support the concept that certain high-risk febrile neutropenic patients receiving anti-yeast prophylaxis may be exempted from automatic receipt of empirical antifungal therapy if in a structured monitoring program and if specific criteria are met [— ].

Practice Guidelines

Randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing clinafloxacin with imipenem as empirical monotherapy for febrile granulocytopenic patients.

Low-risk patients should receive initial oral or IV empirical antibiotic doses in a clinic or udsa setting; they may be transitioned to outpatient oral or IV treatment if they meet specific clinical criteria A-I. Carefully selected febrile adult neutropenic patients at low risk for complications during neutropenia may be treated initially with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics [ 222—3442—4345].

Diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections among pediatric oncology patients lacking a peripheral culture, using differential time to detection. Amphotericin B desoxycholate a polyene antifungal has been the standard empirical choice for over 3 decades; however, a number of trials have identified roles for other antifungal agents, including liposomal amphotericin B, amphotericin B colloidal dispersion, amphotericin B lipid complex alternate formulations of amphotericin Bitraconazole or voriconazole azoles with mold activityand caspofungin the first available echinocandin antifungal [— ].


Neutropenic patients who are colonized with MRSA may benefit from early empirical use of vancomycin specifically, if they are hemodynamically unstable or if gram-positive cocci are detected in their blood cultures.

Email Address Password Forgot Password? Assessment of systemic inflammation markers to differentiate a stable from a deteriorating clinical course in patients with febrile neutropenia.

There were no differences in toxicities. Another important unresolved question is use of the preemptive antifungal approach in patients who are already receiving anti-mold prophylaxis [ ].

Guidelines in the Management of Febrile Neutropenia for Clinical Practice

If it is still indicated after recovery of ANC and platelet count, the test can be performed. However, the collection of clinical neutripenia laboratory data that will locate a potential site or cause of infection is critical prior to the initiation of antibiotics.

Initiation of empiric antifungal therapy is recommended for patients who continue to have persistent fever of unidentified cause following 4 to 7 days of antibiotic treatment, and who present with neutropenia that is expected to last more than 7 days. Vancomycin added to empirical combination antibiotic therapy for fever in granulocytopenic cancer patients.

Although days of neutropenia, duration of fever, and length of hospital stay have been minimally but statistically significantly decreased in some randomized studies, the actual clinical benefit of these reductions is not convincing [ — ]. Furthermore, the selection of patients who may benefit the most from antimicrobial prophylaxis see Section VI is based upon these criteria for being at high risk, which are derived from clinical trials [ 20—41 ].

A randomized prospective study of vancomycin versus placebo added to initial empirical piperacillin-tazobactam after 60—72 h of persistent fever showed no difference in time-to-defervescence [ ]. Patients and their caregivers should be taught how to maintain good oral and dental hygiene during neutropenia.